# Biomedical Engineering

**COURSE STRUCTURE - BSc. BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING**

**FIRST YEAR**

**SEMESTER ONE**

**EE 153 ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY (0 4 2) 2 Credits**

Introductory lectures on industrial safety, hygiene and metrology; Standard system and uses of conventional measuring instruments; Familiarisation tour of mechanical engineering laboratories; Equipment identification in the laboratories; Electronic and Electrical components identification; PCB making; Soldering; Electrical wiring systems: domestic and industrial set ups; Foundations, cement/sandstone mixes, steel reinforcement, concrete foundations and columns; Land surveying, parallelism, use of theodolite for machine installation, Bench work: filling, marking out tool grinding; Machine tools; drilling and shaping.

**MATH 151 ALGEBRA I (4 1 4) 4 Credits**

**Introduction to algebra: **Brief history of numbers; from the natural numbers to the real numbers, Principle of mathematical induction.

**Complex numbers:** Definition, addition, multiplication, division, plane geometry of complex numbers, polar forms, de Moivre’s theorem extraction of roots, elementary functions of a complex variable, applications to trigonometry.

**Vector algebra and applications: **Vector space, linear independence, basis and dimension. Geometrical vectors, Cartesian basis, scalar product and its properties, vector triple product and its properties. Applications: equation of a straight line in various forms, intersection of lines in space and related kinematics problems, skewed lines.

**Matrix algebra:** Definition, matrix operations and properties. Definition of determinant and properties, Inverse and methods of computation, Application to the solution of systems of linear equations. Gaussian elimination, consistency. Eigen value problem, diagonilization of symmetic matrix

**ENGL 157 COMMUNICATION SKILLS I (2 0 2) 2 Credits**

The study of parts of speech – the noun, verb, pronoun, adjective, adverb, and so forth. The use of articles, the study of sentence ultimately leading to paragraph writing.

**EE 151 APPLIED ELECTRICITY (2 2 3) 3 Credits **

*Network Theorems*: Kirchoff’s Laws, superposition, Thevenin’s, Norton’s and Reciprocity theorems, Delta-star and star-delta transformations.

*Alternating Voltage and Current*:Average and r.m.s values, harmonics, phasor representation of sinusoidal quantities, addition and subtraction of sinusoidal quantities.

*A.C. Circuits*: Active, reactive and apparent power, power factor, reactive and active loads and sources, solving single phase circuits using j operator and the concept of apparent power, solving 3-phase balanced and unbalanced loads.

*Magnetic Circuits*: Magnetomotive force, magnetic fields strength, permeability of free space, relative permeability, B-H curves of materials, solving magnetic circuits. **ME 159**

**TECHNICAL DRAWING (1 3 2) 2 Credits **

Geometrical construction; Orthographic projection and other projections; Descriptive geometry, intersections and development.

**BME 161 CELL BIOLOGY (2 3 3) **

**3 Credits Structure and Function**: The Chemistry of the Cell, the Macromolecules of the Cell. Cells and Organelles, Bioenergetics: the Flow of Energy in the Cell, Enzymes: The Catalysts of Life. **Membranes and Cell Signaling**: Membranes: Their Structure, Function and Chemistry, Transport across Membranes: Overcoming the Permeability Barrier, Signal Transduction Mechanisms: Electrical Signals in Nerve Cell, Signal Transduction: Messengers and Receptors, Cell Adhesion and Cell Junctions, Intracellular membrane-bound compartments: The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi complex, Endosomes, Lysosomes, and Peroxisomes, **Information Flow in Cells: **The Structural basis of Cellular Information: DNA, Chromosomes, and the Nucleus,** **The Cell Cycle: DNA Replication, Mitosis and Cancer**, **Sexual Reproduction, Meiosis and Genetic Recombination**; **Programmed Cell Death: Apoptosis**, **Gene Expression I: The Genetic Code and transcription**,** Gene Expression: II Protein Synthesis and Sorting**, **The Regulation of Gene Expression**, **Stem Cells and Cloning.

**ME 161 BASIC MECHANICS (3 1 3) 3 Credits **

** Kinematics in One Dimension:** Average speed and average velocity in one dimension, Instantaneous velocity, Average acceleration, Instantaneous acceleration, Motion with constant acceleration, Acceleration due to gravity

** Vectors:** The displacement vector and the general definition of a vector, Addition of vectors, Position vector; components of vectors, Vector multiplication, Vectors and coordinate rotations

** Kinematics in Three Dimensions**: Velocity and acceleration vectors, Motion with constant acceleration, Projectiles, Uniform circular motion, Relativity of motion and the Galilean transformations

** Dynamics**: Newton’s laws of motion, Momentum of a particle, Galilean or Newtonian relativity, Forces; the equation of motion and its solution, Friction

Work and Energy: Work in one and three dimensions, Kinetic energy, Potential energy, Conservation of mechanical energy

Gravitation: Newton’s law of universal gravitation, Measurement of G, Circular orbits, Elliptical orbits; Kepler’s laws, Gravitational potential energy, Inertial and gravitational mass; the principle of equivalence.

Systems of Particles: Momentum of a system of particles, Conservation of momentum, Two-body collisions, Centre of mass, Motion of the centre of mass, Energy of a system of particles.

Statics: Statics of rigid bodies, static equilibrium, Levers and pulleys

Oscillations: Simple harmonic motion, Simple harmonic oscillator: body suspended at the end of a spring simple pendulum, Kinetic and potential energies of a simple harmonic Oscillator, Damped and forced oscillations.

**SECOND SEMESTER**

**EE 152 BASIC ELECTRONICS (2 2 3) 3 Credits**

Nature of atom, the vacuum valves, (diode, triode, tetrode pentode) Basic concepts of semiconductors charge carriers, effective mass, mobility, conductivity, life time and recombination, continuity equations, flow-equations, Hall effects, PN junctions, choke; rectification and filteration. Bipolar transistors, its characteristics, CB, CC, CE configurations the transistor and a switching devices (ac - dc load lines) Small signal amplifiers.

**MATH 152 CALCULUS WITH ANALYSIS (4 1 4) 4 Credits**

**Introduction to real numbers and Point sets on R:** Real number operations, order of real numbers, completeness of real numbers, absolute value,: intervals, open and closed sets, neighbourhoods, limit points, Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem.

**Sequences, series and functions: **Limits of sequences of real numbers. Theorems on limits, bounded monotonic sequences, evaluation of limits of sequences. Definition of functions: polynomial, algebraic transcendental and hyperbolic functions, local maxima and minima, Types of graphs. Odd, even and periodic functions. Covergence of series of real numbers, tests of convergence, series of functions and power series.

**Coordinate Geometry: **Conic sections in Rectangular coordinates: parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, parametric equations of conic sections, plane polar coordinates, polar curves.

**Continuity and differentiability on R: **Continuity of functions at a point and on an interval. Differentiability: Differentiation of various functions, Rolle’s Theorem, Mean value and Taylor’s theorems, Indeterminate forms and L’Hospital’s rule and applications, repeated differentiation, Leibnitz rule for finding the nth derivative, applications of differentiation.

**Integration: **Definite integrals, definition of Riemann sum, techniques of integration including method of substitution, partial fractions, by parts and reduction formulae. Improper integrals and their convergence.

**ENGL 158 COMMUNICATION SKILLS II (2 0 2) 2 Credits**

Communication process, skills in communication, channels of communication in an organization, preparation of official documents such as letters, memos, reports, minutes and proposals. Oral presentation skills. Formal speech making. Conducting interviews and meetings.

**COE 158 INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (1 2 2)**

Introduction to computers: components of a PC and their functions, memory and storage devices; introduction to operating systems (windows, UNIX, etc); introduction to computer networks; internet and electronic mail; introduction to number systems and codes; data representation: integer and floating point numerals; introduction to computer programming: C

**PHY 154 PROPERTIES OF MATTER (2 0 2) 2 Credits**

*Fluids* : Pressure: definition and formula for it, Atmosphere 2 pressure, Fortin’s Barometer, Variation of atmospheric pressure with height, Density, relative density, Archimedes’ principle, Its use in the measurement of density or relative density, Principle of flotation. Hydrometers, Fluids in motion, Streamlines and velocity, Pressure and velocity, Bernoulli's, principle, Applications of Bernoulli’s principle filter pump, aerofoil lift, flow of liquid from wide tank. Torricelli’s theorem, Measurement of fluid velocity. Pitot-static tribe

*Molecules and matter*: Particle nature of matter, Size and separation of molecules, Intermolecular forces, Properties of solids from molecular theory Bonds between atoms and molecules.

*Elasticity*: Proportional and elastic limits, Hooke’s law, Yield point, ductile and brittle substances, breaking stress, Tensile stress and tensile strain. Young’s modulus, Bulk modulus, Modulus of rigidity or shear modulus, torsion wire, Deformation of solid introduction to dislocations.

*Viscosity*: Newton’s formula, co-efficient of viscosity, Steady flow of liquid through a pipe. Poisenille’s formula, turbulent motion, Stoke’s law, terminal velocity, Molecular theory of viscosity.

*Surface tension*: Energy of gas-liquid, liquid-liquid and solid-solid interfaces, Definition, units, dimensions of surface tension, Some surface tension phenomena: capillarity, angle of contact, Measurement of surface tension, Pressure difference in a bubble or curved liquid surface, Emulsions and emulsifiers, Wetting agents and their application, Molecular bonds and surface tension.

*Ideal gas and kinetic theory*: The ideal gas laws, the ideal-gas temperature scale Energy of an ideal gas. Equipartition of energy, Mean free path. Random walk or Brownian motion, Maxwell’s distribution of velocities.

*Heat*: Heat as a form of energy, Thermal expansion of solid and liquids, Thermometers and thermal equilibrium, Conduction of heat, Change of state, Specific heat of a gas, the adiatratic equation.

**BME 166 BIOCHEMISTRY (2 0 2) 2 Credits**

Cell biology and Enzymology: Biological membranes, Transport mechanisms, Enzyme catalysis. Metabolism and major macro molecules: Introduction, General concepts of metabolism. Carbohydrates metabolism:- Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, Glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, citric Acid Cycle, Electron transport chain. Protein

Metabolism: General reaction of amino acids, Metabolism of individual amino acids and disorders, Urea cycle, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine, and cysteine folic Acid. Lipid metabolism: Biosynthesis of fatty acids, Catabolism of fatty acids, B – oxidation.

Endocrinology: major Endocrine organs of the body, Classification of Hormones, Chemistry of hormones, metabolism of hormone action, Functional roles of hormones. Drugs Metabolism: Major pathway of drug metabolism, mixed function oxidase (MFO) system, Prodrugs. Molecular Diseases: General principles of metabolic disease, specific examples of metabolic diseases (phenylketourea, sickle cell diseases)

**SOC 152 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY (3 0 3) 3 Credits**

Nature and uses of basic concepts of Sociology. Norms, values, status and roles. Institutions, interaction in relationship to the major and minor perspectives, Focus and insights into social processes, socialization, social control; social stratification and social change in relation to the various major and minor perspectives.

**EE 156 ELECTRICAL ENG. DRAWING (1 3 2) 2 Credits**

Electrical and Electronic symbols; Wiring, connection or bread boarded diagrams; schematic diagrams; printed circuit diagrams; electrical power diagrams.

**SECOND YEAR**

**FIRST SEMESTER**

**BME 251 BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN I (2 2 3) 2 Credits**

#### Basic electronic components (resistors, capacitors, transistors), EKG and cardiac physiology, Other common biopotentials: EMG, EOG & EEG , Optical instrumentation: Photoplethysmography (PPG), Op-amps, Passive (RC) Filters, Active filters, Frequency response determination by Bode Plot, Electrical safety and methods used for isolation, Electrical switches, comparators, Schmitt triggers and timers, Telemetry, Prototyping with project (bread) board, Soldering, PCB fabrication, Use of LabView for data acquisition and display of a signal, operation and use of a digital multimeter, operation and use of an oscilloscope.

**MATH 251 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (4 1 4) 4 Credits**

**Differentiation Equations: **Ordinary differential equations; First and Second order linear coefficients; System of differential linear equations with constant coefficients; Laplace transforms and using MATLAB to solve Ordinary differential equations. Solution in series. Fourier series; Classification of second order partial differential equations and reduction to canonical forms; Solution of simple boundary and initial value problems by Separation of variables.

**BME 285 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS I (4 0 4) 4 Credits**

Language & Orientation of Anatomy**, Cell structure**, Investigative techniques of the cell, Fundamental cell structure, specialized cell structure. **Structure and function of tissues**; conduction tissue, contracting tissues, supporting tissues, lining and secreting tissues **Introduction to topographical anatomy, **head and neck, trunk, upper limbs, lower limbs.

**COE 251 C- PROGRAMMING (2 3 3) 3 Credits**

Introduction: About C, C and unix, Dialects of C, Common C, ANSI C; Using C with UNIX: writing the program, compiling the program, the C compiler (cc), Program Builder, Improved Type Checking Using Lint, Running the Program, Constant and Variable Types: Global Variables, External Variables, Static Variables; Constants and Arrays, Expressions and Operators: Assignment Statement, Arithemtic Operators, Type Conversion, Comparison, Logical Connectors, Control Statements: The if else Statement, The switch Statement, Loops, The Standard Input Output File, Character Input/Output, Formatted Input/Output; Handling Files in C. Structures in C, The C Preprocessor, Programs with Several Files, UNIX Library Functions, Precedence of C Operators, Special Characters, Formatted Input and Output Function Types

** COE 271 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES (2 0 2) 2 Credits**

** **PN Juction: Junction diodes and their static and dynamic properties at high frequencies, switching.

Metal-Semiconductor junctions: Energy band diagram of the Schottky barrier, MIS Schottky diode, ohmic contact, applications of Schottky-Barrier diodes, heterojunctions. Solar Cell and light-emitting diode: optical absorption in a Semiconductor, Photovoltaic effect, Schottky-barrier and MIS solar cells, LEDs, eye snsitivity and brightness, Quantum efficiency.

MOS DevicesMOS capacitor, MOS transistor (DC characteristics, depletion - MOST and JFET). Polysilicon gate technology, Metal gate technology, comparison. Control of threshold voltage through iron implantation. Frequency and small signal properties of MOST, special MOS devices (CMOS, VMOS, DMOS, CCD). Examples of CCD in electro-optical applications and signal processing.

Bipolar Junction Devices:The BJT transistor action, Ebers-Molls model, Hybrid-pi and h equivalent circuit, the BJT as a switch, breakdown voltages, lateral PNP transistor, PNPN devices,** **Noise source in BJT**.**

**ENGL 263 LITERATURE IN ENGLISH I (1 0 1) 1 Credits**

Literature as Poetry: What is a poem, and its characteristics? Difference between a poem and a song. The figure of speech and the literary device. Practical appreciation. Literature as Drama: What is a play, and its characteristics? Drama as Theatre. Shakespeare.

The modern Play. Texts to be studied: Selected African and English poems. One Shakespeare play and one Modern African play.

**ELECTIVE (A student is to choose one of these elective courses)**

**FC 181 FRENCH FOR COMMUNICATION PURPOSES I (2 0 2) 2 Credits**

This course is aimed at equipping students with basic French communication skills. The course is specially tailored for students from various departments who have little or no knowledge in French. French techniques of expression, drawn from short dialogues, are exploited to help students have the ability to communicate freely. Attention will be paid to the correct intonation and pronunciation.

**ECON 151 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS I (2 0 2) 2 Credits**

The nature and scope of economics. Consumer choice. Determination of prices. Different market conditions. Production theory and theory of distribution.

**CSM 157 ACCOUNTS I (2 0 2) 2 Credits**

**N**ature and Purpose of Accounting, Historical Review, Users of Accounting Information, Introduction to Double-Entry Book-Keeping, The Accounting Equation; The Balance Sheet, Rules for Double-Entry Book-Keeping, Separation of the Ledger, Balancing the Accounts, The Trial Balance, Errors which do not affect the Trial Balance, Final Accounts; The Trading Account, Profit and Loss Accounts, the Balance Sheet, Accruals and Prepayments, Depreciation, Bad Debts.

**SEMESTER TWO**

**BME 252 BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN II (2 2 3) 3 Credits**

Introduction, Revision of basic circuits and electronics, Operation and use of a digital multimeter, Operation and use of an oscilloscope, Lab #1: RC Filters. Anatomy and physiology of the heart pacemaker system, electrocardiogram, Lab #2: Op-Amp, Filtering, Electrocardiogram. Differential & Instrumentation amplifiers, Lab #3: Instrumentation amplifier, improvement of ECG amplifier: Notes on debugging circuits, AC Coupling, Active filters, Electromyography. Lab #4: EMG amplifier, rectification (detection) and smoothing. Timers, Oscillators, and the Schmidt Trigger, **Choose** **projects**, Printed Circuit Board (PCB) fabrication, Lab #4: Single-rail devices, Lab #5: Soldering technique. *LabView* Data Acquisition & Display, Safety considerations, Project Presentations, Reports

**MATH 252 CALCULUS WITH SEVERAL VARIABLES (4 1 4) 4 Credits**

**Differentiation**: Partial differentiation, Total Derivatives and their Applications

**Differentiation under the Integral Sign: **Multiple Integrals: Double Integrals – Cartesian and Polar Co-ordinates, Applications; Triple Integrals – Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical Co-orditnates, Applications; Line, Surface and Volume Integrals; Triple Scalar and Vector Products; Differentiation of Vectors and Vector Fields. Differentiaton of Implicit Functions of Several Variables – Limits, Continuity, Differentiability and Extrema; Gamma and Beta Functions; Functions of Complex Variables, Conformal Mapping, Contour Integration

**BME 286 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS II (4 0 4) 4 Credits**

Structure and function of the systems, nervous system, special senses, endocrine system, blood, lymphoreticular organs and tissues, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, genito-urinary system, Integumentary system.

**BME 282 CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY (2 0 2) 2 Credits**

**EE 272 DIGITAL SYSTEMS (3 0 3) 3 Credits**

*Digital Devices and Circuits: *Logic gates based on the MOS transistor: Switching times of basic inverters in NMOS and CMOS, logic gates, transmission gates and dynamic circuits. Logic gates based on the Bipolar Junction Transistor: Switching times of the basic inverter, logic gates of TTL, ECL and I2L types.

Latches, flip-flops of types D, SR, JK and master slave, NMOS, CMOS, and I2L implementations. Regernerative circuits: Schmitt, uni-stable multivibratiors.

*Logic Theory: *Logical operations, Boolean algebra, combinations and their various realizations. Minimization techniques. Various codes. Synchronous and asynchronous sequential logic, state assignment and minimization finite state machines.

Reliability, fault diagnosis and threshold logic. Limitations of sequential circuits. *Design examples of Digital Systems.*

**ENGL 264 LITERATURE IN ENGLISH II (1 0 1) 1 Credit**

Literature as Poetry: What is a poem, and its characteristics? Difference between a poem and a song. The figure of speech and the literary device. Practical appreciation. Literature as Drama: What is a play, and its characteristics? Drama as Theatre. Shakespeare. The modern Play. Texts to be studied: Selected African and English poems. One Shakespeare play and one Modern African play.

**ELECTIVE(A student is to choose one of these elective courses)**

**FC 182 FRENCH FOR COMMUNICATION PURPOSES II (2 0 2) 2 Credits**

This course is aimed at helping students to grasp basic French vocabulary to be able to function in everyday situation. Spoken French and oral comprehension are emphasized. This will be supplemented with exercises aimed at giving students ample opportunity to maximize their use of the language. The communicative approach is used to enable students express themselves in different situations.

**ECON 152 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS II (2 0 2) 2 Credits**

A survey of national income – its measurement and determinants. Fluctuations in economic activity and trends in Ghana’s national income. Index number. International trade and national economy, role of government.

**CSM 158 ACCOUNTS II (2 0 2) 2 Credits**

Bank Reconciliation Statements, Suspension Accounts & Correction of Errors, Introduction to Company Accounts, Interpretation of Accounts by Means of Ratios and Cash Budget.

**THIRD YEAR **

**FIRST SEMESTER**

**EE 371 LINEAR ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS (3 2 3) 3 Credits**

Device fabrication technology, Small signal transistor models, basic amplifier structures (CC, CB, CE). Design of BT amplifiers.

FET amplifiers, Bias stability of transistor amplifiers. Frequency response of wide-band and narrow-band amplifiers. Large signal (power) amplifiers (class A, B, AB, C etc).

Differential amplifiers and current sources. The ideal Op-Amp, the practical Op-Amps, Op-Amp selection, application to instrumentation and telecommunication. Feedback and stability. Quasi-linear circuits: Feedback limiters, comparators, Schmitt Triggers. Analog Multipliers and modulators. Voltage Regulators, application to power supplies. Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) circuits. IC oscillators and timers: IC oscillators and timer circuits, frequency-to-voltage, voltage-to-frequency converters.

**MATH 351 NUMERICAL METHODS (2 1 2) 2 Credits**

**Methods of Solving Systems of Linear Equations**

**Direct Methods**: Gaussian Elimination with/without pivoting, Factorization Methods (LU Decomposition with/without pivoting, Choleski Method)

**Iterative Methods:** Jacobi Method, Gauss Seidel Method and Successive-Over Relaxation Method

**Methods Of Solving Systems Of Non-Linear Equations:*** *Newton’s Method, Generalized Newton’s Method and Continuation Method

**Methods of finding Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors: **Characteristic Equation Approach, Power Method, Inverse Power Method and Gerchgorim’s Circle Method

**Numerical Integration**:* *Trapezoidal Method, Simpson’s Method and Gaussian Quadrature

**Interpolation Methods:** Lagrange Approximation, Error Terms and Bounds, Newton Polynomials, Polynomial Approximation, Nodes and Centres; Forward, Backward and Divided Differences.

**Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations***:* Finite Difference Methods, Single-Step Methods, Multi-Step Methods and Predictor Corrector Methods

**TE 385 SIGNALS & SYSTEMS (3 0 3) 3 Credits**

Characteristic and properties of signals and systems. The delta function and its derivatives. Operation on signals and systems. Linear systems described by D. E. Impulse response, I/O (BIBO) stability. The concepts of state, state equations, symptotic stability. The one-sided Laplace transform, transfer function, poles, zeros stability. Examples of electromechanical servo systems and their representation by state equations and transfer function. Signals and systems in discrete time. Discrete convolution, unit sample response. Linear systems described by difference equations. Solution of difference equations. I/O (BIBO) stability. The one-sided z-transform: definition, ROC, properties. Inverse z-transform. Transfer function of discrete time systems, poles, zeros, stability. Frequency response of linear systems, Bode diagrams, representation of the response to sinusoidal excitation by Fourier Series. Extension of FT to delta functions and periodic signals.

**MATH 353 PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS (2 1 2)**

**Introduction to Probability Theory:** Random Experiments, Definition of terms and notations and determination of Measure of Probability. Basic Laws/Rules of Probabilty including Compound Events, Computation of Probabilities involving Simple Events, Application to Counting Techniques and Decision Problems.

**Random Variables and Probability Distribution:** Concept of random variables, Properties of Probability distributions, Cumulative Distribution Functions and Sketching of Distribution Functions. Expected Value, Median and Variance of Random Variable and their Applications to Decision Problems.

**Moments and Moment Generating Functions:** Definition of Moments about the Origin and the Mean and their uses; Definition, properties and Uses of Moment Generating Functions

**Properties and Applications of some Special Probability Distributions :**

**Discrete Distributions:** Independent Bernoulli’s Trials and related probability distributions such as Bernoulli, Binomial, Geometric and negative Binomial. The Poisson, Hypergeometric and Multinomial Distributions; Relationships existing between some of the distributions, Proof of properties of the distributions.

**Continuous Distributions**: Uniform, Exponential, Normal, Gamma, Chi-Square and Beta Distributions; Use of the Normal Distribution Table, Normal Approximation to Binomial and Poisson Distributions; Proof of properties of the distributions

**Joint Probability Distributions**: Definitions and properties of Joint Probability Distributions; Marginal and Conditional Distributions, Independent Random Variables, Covariance and Correlation Coefficient of Random Variables; Distribution of Linear combination of Random Variables, Transformation of Random Variables and their Probability Distributions; Moment Generating Functions of Bivariate Random Variables.

**Regression and Correlation Analysis: **Basic Concepts of Regression and correlation Analysis. Scatter Diagram, correlation coefficient and its interpretation. Simple and multiple Regression Models, Estimation of Regression Parameters and Determination of Adequacy of Regression Model using Coefficient of Determination and Significance Tests and Parameters.

**Use of Statistical Software for Statistical Analysis: **SPSS, GENSTAT, MINITAB, SAS, Excel, etc.

**COE 381 MICROPRCOSESSORS (2 2 3) 3 Credits**

Microprocessor system: Basic concept and terminology, input, output, interface, memories. Architecture: ALU, registers, program counters etc. Hardware: System bus structure, data, address and control bus. Microprocessor interfacing. Types of microprocessors; 4 bit, 8 bit and 16 bit. Families (Intel, Motorola and Zilog). Assembler language programming; development aid, application development. Application of microprocessor in PLC.

**COE 354 OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING (2 3 3) 3 Credits**

Introduction to object oriented programming (OOP) using the C++ language: C++ classes/objects, input/output streams, overloading, inheritance, templates and exception handling; Familiarity with the C programming language is a requirement**.**

**SMS 397 RESEARCH METHODS (2 3 3) 3 Credits**

Types of research:- Quantitative and Qualitative studies. The Research Process; Research Designs, Literature Review, Importance of Literature, Sources of literature, process of reviewing literature.

Sampling: techniques, Sampling techniques and Sample size determination.

Data Collection: Tools and Techniques, Data processing, approaches to presentation of research findings and dissemination, Proposal Writing, Project Management and Critiquing research articles.

**SECOND SEMESTER**

**BME 372 BIOINSTRUMENTATION I (2 2 3) 3 Credits**

Review of circuits, Op-amps, Diodes, Transistors, Sinusoidal analysis, Laplace transforms, Design and use of bio-potential amplifiers and other biomedical instruments.

**BME 362 BIOMATERIALS I (3 0 3) 3 Credits**

Fundamental, Basic Principles and Characterization of biomaterials: Introduction to biomaterials and definitions, Overview of materials science and types of materials used in biomedical applications, Polymer chemistry, Polymer physics and processing, Mechanical properties of polymers, Polymer biodegradation and design of biodegradable polymers, Inorganic materials in biomedical applications, Hybrid materials in biomedical applications, Introduction to surface properties and analysis, Protein absorption, Cell adhesion, Surface modification and immobilization.

**BME 364 MEDICAL IMAGING I (2 2 3) 3 Credits**

Fundamentals of X-ray, Generation and detection of X-ray, X-ray diagnostic methods, recent developments, image characteristics, Biological effects of ionizing radiation, Fundamentals of radioactivity, Generation and detection of nuclear emission, Diagnostic methods using radiation detector, Internal radiation dosimetry, Fundamentals of nuclear magnetic resonance, In vivo NMR spectroscopy, Biological effects of magnetic fields

**BME 366 BIO-SIGNAL PROCESSES & ANALYSIS (2 2 3) 3 Credits**

Introduction to bio-signals: their properties, representation and basic operations upon them. Basic signal processing concepts: time and frequency domain, filters, power spectrum.

Bio-signal quality improvement: dealing with noise and artifacts.

Bio-signal Interpretation: analysis, pattern recognition and decision making, bio-signal processing in the healthcare applications (routine and critical care patient monitoring), bio-signal processing wellness applications (lifestyle, sports, elderly). Integrating science: uniting signals, images, models, biological data and clinical knowledge, bio-signal processing in research projects: study design, treatment of data, evaluation of results, reporting, communication with subjects/clinicians, pitfalls.

**COE 358 EMBEDDED SYSTEMS (3 2 3) 3 Credits**

*Overview of embedded systems*: Embedded C Programming; Interfacing C and Assembly; Loaders and object files; Profiling and code optimization.

*CPU Interfacing*: Use of the Edge-triggered D-type flip-flop and tri-state buffer for binary I/O –circuit design & timing diagrams; Design of buses (using registers and tri-state drivers) for connecting many binary sources to a single input port or for connecting many output ports to a single circuit design, handshaking, and timing diagram; Generalized handshaking protocol for binary input and output ; Standard buses: RS-232, RS-422, IEEE-488, PCI; Polling, Interrupts, buffering and DMA. *Analog/Digital Interface*: D/A characteristics: transfer function, resolution, absolute error, linearity error, differential linearity error power supply sensitivity glitch area, settling time, slewing rate ; D/A designs: Resistive ladder and R-2R; Sample and hold (S/H) amplifier circuit and characteristic; A/D characteristics: transfer function, resolution, absolute error, linearity error, differential linearity error, power supply sensitivity; Comparator with hysteresis, output vs. input; A/D designs and comparison of properties: tracking, dual slope, successive approximation, flash, half-flash, sigma-delta; Analog data acquisition circuit –S/H, A/D, input port, handshaking, timing diagram; S/H aperture and A/D conversion time limitations on fmax; Analog data acquisition control-software vs. hardware trigger, status poll vs. interrupts vs. dedicated** **memory; Aliasing in the time domain-apparent frequency vs. true frequency for particular sampling rate

**BME 374 BIOMEDICAL OPTICS (2 2 3) 3 Credits **

TOPICS: Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum, Lasers and Light Detectors, Propation of Light, Geometrical Optics, Polarization, Diffraction and Gratings, Interference, Modern Biomedical Instrumentation Devices and Applications.

**FOURTH YEAR**

**FIRST SEMESTER **

**BME 451 MEDICAL IMAGING II (2 2 3) 3 Credits**

**Overview of imaging modalities, X-ray computed tomography**, Physical principles and instrumentation, Radon transform and radon transform inversion, Filtered back projection formula, **Nuclear imaging and emission tomography, **Principles and instrumentation for Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), Principles and instrumentation for positron emission tomography (PET), Image reconstruction in emission tomography, **Ultrasound, **Physical principles of ultrasound imaging, Ultrasound transducers, Propagation of ultrasound waves, Presentation modes of ultrasound images, Diffraction tomography, **Optical imaging methods, **Propagation of near-IR light in tissues, Contrast mechanisms, Image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography, Spectroscopic methods, **Magnetic resonance imaging, **Magnetic resonance as a probe of the body, Contrast agents, Spectroscopic applications, Instrumentation for MRI, Image reconstruction in MRI.

**BME 471 BIOINSTRUMENTATION II (2 2 3) 3 Credits**

Instrument design and measurement principles, Fundamentals of electricity, Ion transport through cellular and epithelial membranes, Computer-based data acquisition, Model fitting and regression analysis, Sensors, Electrodes, Patch clamps, Transducer calibration, Amplifiers and bridges, Signal artifact and analog/digital filters, Frequency response and fast Fourier transforms, Electromagnetic interference and shielding, Equipment safety and human factors, Measurement equipment (pulse oximeters, electrocardiographs, spirometers, etc.), Medical imaging techniques (MRI, Xray, CT, ultrasound, etc.), Medical image processing, Data management, storage, and transport.

**BME 461 BIOMECHANICS I (2 2 3) 3 Credits**

Application** **of** **Statics** **to** **Biological** **Systems**:** Review of basic Statics, Free-body diagrams in organs, bones and joints, Example problems in biomechanics (elbow, shoulder, spine, hip, knee, ankle),** **Application** **of** **Dynamics** to **Biological**Systems:** Linear and angular kinematics, Kinetic equations of motion, Mass moment of inertia, Work & energy methods, Momentum methods, Example problems in biomechanics, Modern kinematic measurement techniques, Applications of human motion analysis.

**BME 463 BIOMATERIALS II (3 0 3) 3 Credits**

Biocompatibility and Clinical Applications of Biomaterials: Immune response to biomaterials, Inflammation, Anticoagulation & Fibrinolysis, Bacterial adhesion and infection; sterilization of biomaterials, Class trip: surgery, Hydrogels and natural biomaterials, Biomaterials used in drug delivery systems, In vitro evaluation of biomaterials, Angiogenesis in biomaterias, In vivo evaluation of biomaterials; animal models, Clinical applications of biomaterials.

ME 491 **ENGINEERING ECONOMY AND MANAGEMENT (2 0 2) 2 Credits**

Introduction to management (definition and introduction to the main functions of management). Performance-related emoluments and other incentive systems. Engineering economy. Accounting and cost accounting. Project Management.

**BME 497 PROJECT I (0 6 3) 3 Credits**

Supervisors research project by individual student in partial fulfilment of the requirement for graduation.

**SECOND SEMESTER**

**BME 454 MEDICAL DEVICE REGULATION (2 2 3) 3 Credits**

Introduction to medical device law, premarket notification investigational device exemptions, premarket approvals, import/export, quality system, Regulations, medical device reporting, post market controls, enforcement FDA organization and reorganization, MDR analysis, Clinical trials, Good Manufacturing Practices, Focus on Human Factors, Case studies.

**BME 462 BIOMECHANICS II (2 2 3) 3 Credits**

Fundamental Strength of Biological Tissues: Stress-Strain (constitutive relationships, viscoelastic material), Review – Axial (& multiaxial) loading, Torsion, Centroids, Statically indeterminant systems, Moments of Inertia, Bending, Combined Loadings, Stress transformations, Mohr’s Circle, Failure Theories and Stress concentrations.

**ME 492 ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT (2 0 2) 2 Credits**

Entrepreneurship and free enterprise.Business planning. Product and service concepts for new ventures. Marketing and new venture development. Organising and financing new ventures. Current trend (Internet commerce, e-commerce). Business Law/Law of contract. Mini-project in business plan development for self employment.

**COE 472 DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING (DSP) (3 0 3) 3 Credits**

Introduction: Basic concepts and terminology in DSP, comparison between analog and digital signal processing. Tools and techniques for DSP:

Description of discrete signals and systems in time domain, Description of discrete signals and systems in frequency domain, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and inverse transform properties, Circuit convolution and its relation to DFT, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT): Properties

Filters:

Filter Realization; Methods for the realization of a transfer function. Filters with finite impulse response and linear phase. Filter Design of Infinite Impulse response (IIR) digital filters form.

**BME 498 PROJECT II (0 6 5) 5 Credits**

Supervisors research project by individual student in partial fulfillment of the requirement for graduation.