# Computer Engineering

**GENERAL ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS**

**INFORMATION FOR UNDERGRADUATE APPLICANTS**

### Requirements

**WASSCE/SSSCE**Holders who have credits (**A1-C6/ A-D Respectively**) in the following**Three (3)****Core**Subjects:**English Language, Mathematics and Integrated Science**plus credits (**A1-C6**) in**Three Elective**Subjects with an Aggregate Score of**24 or better**.

**OR**

**ADVANCED LEVEL**Holders with credits in at least**Five**(5) subjects at the GCE ‘O’ Level (or its equivalent) including**English Language and Mathematics**, plus at least two passes in the relevant subjects at the Advanced Level obtained not more than Three (3) years ago

**OR**

**MATURE STUDENTS**who have attained the age of**25 years**or above at the time of application and have credits in**Five**(5) GCE ‘O Level subjects including**English****Language and Mathematics**, in addition to passing an Entrance Examination and /or Interview.

**COURSE STRUCTURE - BSc. COMPUTER ENGINEERING**

**FIRST YEAR COURSES**

**FIRST SEMESTER**

**MATH 151 ALGEBRA (4 1 4)**

**Introduction to algebra: **Brief history of numbers; from the natural numbers to the real numbers, Principle of mathematical induction.

**Complex numbers:** Definition, addition, multiplication, division, plane geometry of complex numbers, polar forms, de Moivre’s theorem extraction of roots, elementary functions of a complex variable, applications to trigonometry.

**Vector algebra and applications: **Vector space, linear independence, basis and dimension. Geometrical vectors, Cartesian basis, scalar product and its properties, vector triple product and its properties. Applications: equation of a straight line in various forms, intersection of lines in space and related kinematics problems, skewed lines.

**Matrix algebra:** Definition, matrix operations and properties. Definition of determinant and properties, Inverse and methods of computation, Application to the solution of systems of linear equations. Gaussian elimination, consistency. Eigen value problem, diagonilization of symmetic matrix.

**ENGL 157 COMMUNICATION SKILLS I (2 0 2)**

The study of parts of speech – the noun, verb, pronoun, adjective, adverb, and so forth. The use of articles, the study of sentence ultimately leading to paragraph writing.

**CE 155 ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (2 0 2)**

Humans and Nature. Introductory ecology. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Ozone and global warming. Natural resources. Population. Concepts of environmental: Noise, air, land and water pollution. Impact of engineering projects on the environment and control measures. Environmental Laws and regulations in Ghana.

**ME 159 TECHNICAL DRAWING (1 3 2)**

Geometrical construction; Orthographic projection and other projections; Descriptive geometry, intersections and development.

**ME 161 BASIC MECHANICS (3 1 3)**

Introductory concepts of engineering mechanics involving basic principles instatics and dynamics with simple applications. Simple machines and conservation laws.

**EE 151 APPLIED ELECTRICITY (2 2 3)**

Network Theorems: Kirchoff’s Laws, superposition, Thevenin’s, Norton’s and Reciprocity theorems, Delta-star and star-delta transformations.

Alternating Voltage and Current:Average and r.m.s values, harmonics, phasor representation of sinusoidal quantities, addition and substraction of sinusoidal quantities.

A.C. Circuits: Active, reactive and apparent power, power factor, reactive and active loads and sources, solving single phase circuits using j operator and the concept of apparent power, solving 3-phase balanced and unbalanced l;oads.

Magnetic Circuits: Magnetomotive force, magnetic fields strength, permeability of free space, relative permeability, B-H curves of materials, solving magnetic circuits.

**COE 153 ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY (0 4 2)**

Introductory lectures on industrial safety, hygiene and metrology; Standard system Introductory lectures on industrial safety, hygiene and metrology; Standard system and uses of conventional measuring instruments; Familiarisation tour of mechanical engineering laboratories; Equipment identification in the laboratories; Electronic and Electrical components identification; PCB making; Soldering; Electrical wiring systems: domestic and industrial set ups; Foundations, cement/sandstone mixes, steel reinforcement, concrete foundations and columns; Land surveying, parallelism, use of theodolite for machine installation, Bench work: filling, marking out tool grinding; Machine tools; drilling and shaping.

**SECOND SEMESTER**

**MATH 152 CALCULUS WITH ANALYSIS (4 1 4)**

**Introduction to real numbers and Point sets on R:** Real number operations, order of real numbers, completeness of real numbers, absolute value,: intervals, open and closed sets, neighbourhoods, limit points, Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem.

**Sequences, series and functions: **Limits of sequences of real numbers. Theorems on limits, bounded monotonic sequences, evaluation of limits of sequences. Definition of cunctions: polynomial, algebraic transcendental and hyperbolic functions, local maxima and minima, Types of graphs. Odd, even and periodic functions. Covergence of series of real numbers, tests of convergence, series of functions and power series.

**Coordinate Geomtry: **Conic sections in Rectangular coordinates: parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, parametric equations of conic sections, plane polar coordinates, polar curves.

**Continuity and differentiability on R: **Continuity of functions at a point and on an interval. Differentiability: Differentiation of various functions, Rolle’s Theorem, Mean value and Taylor’s theorems, Indeterminate forms and L’Hospital’s rule and applications, repeated differentiation, Leibnitz rule for finding the nth derivative, applications of differentiation.

**Integration: **Definite integrals, definition of Riemann sum, techniques of integration including method of substitution, partial fractions, by parts and reduction formulae. Improper integrals and their convergence.

**ENGL 158 COMMUNICATION SKILLS II (2 0 2)**

Communication process, skills in communication, channels of communication in an organization, preparation of official documents such as letters, memos, reports, minutes and proposals. Oral presentation skills. Formal speech making. Conducting interviews and meetings.

**ME 166 APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS (2 0 2)**

Energy, heat and work. First and second laws of thermodynamics and corollaries. Applications to liquids, vapours and gases. Perfect gases. Property tables. Flow and non-flow processes. Analysis of ideal vapour and gas cycles.

**EE 152 BASIC ELECTRONICS (2 2 3)**

Nature of atom, the vacuum valves, (diode, triode, tetrode pentode) Basic concepts of semiconductors charge carriers, effective mass, mobility, conductivity, life time and recombination, continuity equations, flow-equations, Hall effects, PN junctions, choke; rectification and filteration. Bipolar transistors, its characteristics, CB, CC, CE configurations the transistor and a switiching devices (ac - dc load lines) Small signal amplifiers.

**EE 156 ELECTRICAL ENG. DRAWING (1 3 2)**

Electrical and Electronic symbols; Wiring, connection or breadboarded diagrams; schematic diagrams; printed circuit diagrams; electrical power diagrams.

**EE 172 ELECTRICAL MACHINES (3 0 3)**

**Basic Laws of Electrical Machines: **Faraday’s law of electromagnetic inductions. Power relationships. Magnetic field, force on a current carrying wire, induced voltage on a conductor moving in a magnetic field, mechanical motions.

**D.C. Machines:** Principles of operation, construction of DC machines, armature windings: lap and wave, emf commutation. DC generators: excitation, load characteristics and voltage regulations of separately excited, shunt wound, series wound and compound wound generators. Conditions for self-excitation of shunt-wound generator. DC motors: speed and torque, starting and speed control. Tests, measurement and efficiencies of DC machines.

**Transformers: **Principle of single phase transformers, equivalent circuits, phasor diagram, tests of transformers, parallel operation of transformer and performance characteristics. Three phase transformer: Connection methods for three phase transformers. Auto-transformers. Current and potential transformers.

**Induction Machines: **Production of rotating magnetic field by uniformly distributed three phase windings. Principles of operation and construction of induction motor. Definition of slip, equivalent circuit, measurement of winding resistance, magnetizing and leakage reactance. Losses, efficiency and torque. Output characteristics, starting torque and maximum torque. Starting methods. Speed control. Braking of induction motor. Tests of induction machines to determine motor constants and losses/efficiency.

**Single Phase Machine: **Single phase induction machine. Special machines: stepper motor, hysteresis motor, reluctant motor, permanent magnet motors, brushless dc motor, universal motor.

**COE 158 INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) (1 2 2)**

Introduction to computers: components of a PC and their functions, memory and storage devices; introduction to operating systems (windows, UNIX, etc); introduction to computer networks; internet and electronic mail; introduction to number systems and codes; data representation: integer and floating poit numerals; introduction to computer programming: visual basic.

*SECOND YEAR COURSES*

**FIRST SEMESTER**

**MATH 251 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (4 1 4)**

**Differentiation Equations: **Ordinary differential equations; First and Second order linear coefficients; System of differential linear equations with constant coefficients; Laplace transforms and using MATLAB to solve Ordinary differential equations. Solution in series. Fourier series; Classification of second order partial differential equations and reduction to canonical forms; Solution of simple boundary and initial value problems by Separation of variables.

**COE 251 C Programming (2 3 3)**

Introduction: About C, C and unix, Dialects of C, Common C, ANSI C; Using C with UNIX: writing the program, compiling the program, the C compiler (cc), Make, a Program Builer, Improved Type Checking Using Lint, Running the Program, Constant and Variable Types: Global Variables, External Variables, Static Variables; Constants and Arrays, Expressions and Operators: Assignment Statement, Arithemtic Operators, Type Conversion, Comparison, Logical Connectors, Control Statements: The if else Statement, The switch Statement, Loops, The Standard Input Output File, Character Input/Output, Formatted Input/Output; Handling Files in C. Structures in C, The C Preprocessor, Programs with Several Files, UNIX Library Functions, Precedence of C Operators, Special Characters, Formatted Input and Output Function Types

**COE 271 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES (2 0 2)**

PN Juction: Junction diodes and their static and dynamic properties at high frequencies, switching.

Metal-Semiconductor junctions: Energy band diagram of the Schottky barrier, MIS Schottky diode, ohmic contact, applications of Schottky-Barrier diodes, heterojunctions. Solar Cell and light-emitting diode: optical absorption in a Semiconductor, Photovoltaic effect, Schottky-barrier and MIS solar cells, LEDs, eye snsitivity and brightness, Quantum efficiency.

MOS Devices MOS capacitor, MOS transistor (DC characteristics, depletion - MOST and JFET). Polysilicon gate technology, Metal gate technology, comparison. Control of threshold voltage through iron implantation. Frequency and small signal properties of MOST, special MOS devices (CMOS, VMOS, DMOS, CCD). Examples of CCD in electro-optical applications and signal processing.

Bipolar Junction Devices: The BJT transistor action, Ebers-Molls model, Hybrid-pi and h equivalent circuit, the BJT as a switch, breakdown voltages, lateral PNP transistor, PNPN devices,** **Noise source in BJT**.**

**EE 287 CIRCUIT THEORY (2 0 2)**

*Review and application of Network theorems to AC Networks*Superposition, substitution, Thevenin, Duality; Norton; Reciprocity.

##### Network Topology

Graph or network: Trees; Node voltages and current equation. Use of nodal voltage method and mesh current method in network analysis.

*Two prot Network*s: Relationship between terminal quantities; choice of parameters; network models; interconnection of networks; validity tests. Application of interconnection rules; Loaded two ports; Reciprocity and symmetry.

*Multiport Networks* : Network equations; effect of dependent and independent internal sources.

*n-terminal networks.*The indefinite admittance matrix; connection of a terminal to earth; connection of two terminals together; suppression of terminal; connection of networks in parallel.

*Two port devices:* Impedance converter, Generalized impedance converter, Negative impedance converter, impedance inverter, the Gyrator.

**COE 291 COMPUTER ENG. LAB. I (0 9 2)**

Laboratory work in the following areas: Transducers, measuring instruments, characteristics of semiconductor devices and amplifiers design and construction. At least 6 experiments to be performed

**ENGL 263 LITERATURE IN ENGLISH I (1 0 1)**

Literature as Poetry: What is a poem, and its characteristics? Difference between a poem and a song. The figure of speech and the literary device. Practical appreciation. Literature as Drama: What is a play, and its characteristics? Drama as Theatre. Shakespeare. The modern Play.

Texts to be studied: Selected African and English poems. One Shakespeare play and one Modern African play.

**TE 271 ANALOG COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (2 0 2)**

The EM Spectrum impact of visible light/infrared, X-Rays, etc. on industry, agriculture, health, etc. Carrier transmission. Spectrum translation, SSB, DSB. FUSB Continuous amplitude modulation (AM) and Angle modulation (FM, PM). Comparison of modulation techniques, Power calculations of transmitting power required for reliable communications (AM systems). Pulse-modulation techniques.(PAM,PCM). Sampling theorem.

**ELECTIVE(A student is to choose a course from the list below)**

**FREN 181 FRENCH FOR COMMUNICATION I (2 0 2)**

This course is aimed at equipping students with basic French communication skills. The course is specially tailored for students from various departments who have little or no knowledge in French. French techniques of expression, drawn from short dialogues, are exploited to help students have the ability to communicate freely. Attention will be paid to the correct intonation and pronunciation.

**ECON 151 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS I (2 0 2)**

The nature and scope of economics. Consumer choice. Determination of prices. Different market conditions. Production theory, and theory of distribution.

**CSM 157 ACCOUNTS I (2 0 2)**

**N**ature and Purpose of Accounting, Historical Review, Users of Accounting Information, Introduction to Double-Entry Book-Keeping, The Accounting Equation; The Balance Sheet, Rules for Double-Entry Book-Keeping, Separation of the Ledger, Balancing the Accounts, The Trial Balance, Errors which do not affect the Trial Balance, Final Accounts; The Trading Account, Profit and Loss Accounts, the Balance Sheet, Accruals and Prepayments, Depreciation, Bad Debts.

**SECOND SEMESTER**

**MATH 252 CALCULUS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES (4 1 4)**

**Differentiation**: Partial differentiation, Total Derivatives and their Applications

**Differentiation under the Integral Sign: **Multiple Integrals: Double Integrals – Cartesian and Polar Co-ordinates, Applications; Triple Integrals – Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical Co-orditnates, Applications; Line, Surface and Volume Integrals; Triple Scalar and Vector Products; Differentiation of Vectors and Vector Fields. Differentiaton of Implicit Functions of Several Variables – Limits, Continuity, Differentiability and Extrema; Gamma and Beta Functions; Functions of Complex Variables, Conformal Mapping, Contour Integration.

**COE 252 DATA STRUCTURES & ALGORITHMS (3 2 3)**

*Basic Concepts of data structures*

*Data abstraction and object oriented fundamental data structures*: Programming to interfaces.

*Application and implementation of some fundamental data structures:* Sets, stacks, queues, linked lists,trees, graphs and B-trees; multiple linked lists; recursion revisited.

*Memory Allocation*: Storage algorithms, Storage management and garbage collection

*Operations of Algorithms on data structures :*Searching and sorting algorithms; sorting: quick sort, bubble sort, binary sort, mergesort heapsort and insertion sort.

**COE 272 DIGITAL SYSTEMS (3 0 3)**

*Digital Devices and Circuits: *Logic gates based on the MOS transistor: Switching times of basic inverters in NMOS and CMOS, logic gates, transmission gates, dynamic circuits. Logic gates based on the Bipolar Junction Transistor: Switching times of the basic inverter, logic gates of TTL, ECL and I2L types.

Latches, flip-flops of types D, SR, JK and master slave, NMOS, CMOS, and I2L implementations.

Regernerative circuits: Schmitt, uni-stable multivibratiors.

*Logic Theory: *Logical operations, Boolean algebra, combinations and their various realizations. Minimization techniques. Various codes. Synchronous and asynchronous sequential logic, state assignment and minimization finite state machines.

Reliability, fault diagnosis and threshold logic. Limitations of sequential circuits. *Design examples of Digital Systems.*

**TE 262 ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (2 0 2)**

Electrostatics and electromagnetism: the electric fields, conductors, insulators, capacitance, the magnetic field in free space, magnetic effects of iron. Calculation of inductance, field plotting, electromagnetic induction Maxwell’s equations differential plus integral form. Electromagnetic waves theory: EM waves in a homogeneous medium uniform plane wave propagation, conductors, dielectric, skin effect reflection, reflection of plane waves. Poynting Vector

**EE 288 ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT & INSTRUMENTATION (3 0 3)**

Operational principles and dynamic analysis of measuring instruments: moving coil instruments, moving iron instruments. Electrostatic, electrodynamics, industrial instruments. Instrument Transformers. Measurement of current, voltage, power energy, phase, power factor, frequency,

Measurement of resistance, capacitance and inductance, bridge methods; resonance methods, sensors, and transducers. Methods of measuring non-electric quantities: heat, light, sound, pressure, strain. stress. mechanical displacement, flow, liquid level, humidity, speed, velocity and time. The C.R.O. and its application. Electronic measuring instruments such as logic analysers, spectrum analysers and computer controlled automatic measuring instruments. SCADA systems and remote metering

**ENGL 264 LITERATURE IN ENGLISH II**** (1 0 1)**

See detailed description for first semester segment ENGL 263.

**ELECTIVE(A student is to choose a course from the list below)**

**FC 182 FRENCH FOR COMMUNICATION PURPOSES II (2 0 2)**

This course is aimed at helping students to grasp basic French vocabulary to be able to function in everyday situation. Spoken French and oral comprehension are emphasized. This will be supplemented with exercises aimed at giving students ample opportunity to maximize their use of the language. The communicative approach is used to enable students express themselves in different situations.

**ECON 152 INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS II (2 0 2)**

A survey of national income – its measurement and determinants. Fluctuations in economic activity and trends in Ghana’s national income. Index number. International trade and national economy, role of government.

**CSM 158 ACCOUNTS II (2 0 2)**

Bank Reconciliation Statements, Suspension Accounts & Correction of Errors, Introduction to Company Accounts, Interpretation of Accounts by Means of Ratios and Cash Budget.

*THIRD YEAR COURSES*

**FIRST SEMESTER**

**MATH 351 NUMERICAL METHODS (2 1 2)**

**Methods of Solving Systems of Linear Equations**

**Direct Methods**: Gaussian Elimination with/without pivoting, Factorization Methods (LU Decomposition with/without pivoting, Choleski Method)

**Iterative Methods:** Jacobi Method, Gauss Seidel Method and Successive-Over Relaxation Method

* ***Methods Of Solving Systems Of Non-Linear Equations:*** *Newton’s Method, Generalized Newton’s Method and Continuation Method

**Methods of finding Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors: **Characteristic Equation Approach, Power Method, Inverse Power Method and Gerchgorim’s Circle Method

**Numerical Integration**:* *Trapezoidal Method, Simpson’s Method and Gaussian Quadrature

**Interpolation Methods:** Lagrange Approximation, Error Terms and Bounds, Newton Polynomials, Polynomial Approximation, Nodes and Centres; Forward, Backward and Divided Differences.

*Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations:* Finite Difference Methods, Single-Step Methods, Multi-Step Methods and Predictor Corrector Methods

**MATH 353 PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 1 (2 1 2)**

**Introduction to Probability Theory:** Random Experiments, Definition of terms and notations and determination of Measure of Probability. Basic Laws/Rules of Probabilty including Compound Events, Computation of Probabilities involving Simple Events, Application to Counting Techniques and Decision Problems.

**Random Variables and Probability Distribution:** Concept of random variables, Properties of Probability distributions, Cumulative Distribution Functions and Sketching of Distribution Functions. Expected Value, Median and Variance of Random Variable and their Applications to Decision Problems.

**Moments and Moment Generating Functions:** Definition of Moments about the Origin and the Mean and their uses; Definition, properties and Uses of Moment Generating Functions

**Properties and Applications of some Special Probability Distributions :**

**Discrete Distributions:** Independent Bernoulli’s Trials and related probability distributions such as Bernoulli, Binomial, Geometric and negative Binomial. The Poisson, Hypergeometric and Multinomial Distributions; Relationships existing between some of the distributions, Proof of properties of the distributions.

**Continuous Distributions**: Uniform, Exponential, Normal, Gamma, Chi-Square and Beta Distributions; Use of the Normal Distribution Table, Normal Approximation to Binomial and Poisson Distributions; Proof of properties of the distributions

**Joint Probability Distributions**: Definitions and properties of Joint Probability Distributions; Marginal and Conditional Distributions, Independent Random Variables, Covariance and Correlation Coefficient of Random Variables; Distribution of Linear combination of Random Variables, Transformation of Random Variables and their Probability Distributions; Moment Generating Functions of Bivariate Random Variables.

**Regression and Correlation Analysis: **Basic Concepts of Regression and correlation Analysis. Scatter Diagram, correlation coefficient and its interpretation. Simple and multiple Regression Models, Estimation of Regression Parameters and Determination of Adequacy of Regression Model using Coefficient of Determination and Significance Tests and Parameters.

**Use of Statistical Software for Statistical Analysis: **SPSS, GENSTAT, MINITAB, SAS, Excel, etc.

**EE 371 LINEAR ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS (2 2 3)**

Device fabrication technology, Small signal transistor models, basic amplifier structures (CC, CB, CE). Design of BT amplifiers.

FET amplifiers, Bias stability of transistor amplifiers. Frequency response of wide-band and narrow-band amplifiers. Large signal (power) amplifiers (class A, B, AB, C etc). Differential amplifiers and current sources. The ideal Op-Amp, the practical Op-Amps, Op-Amp selection, application to instrumentation and telecommunication. Feedback and stability. Quasi-linear circuits: Feedback limiters, comparators, Schmitt Triggers. Analog Multipliers And modulators. Voltage Regulators, application to power supplies. Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) circuits. IC oscillators and timers: IC oscillators and timer circuits, frequency-to-voltage, voltage-to-frequency converters.

**COE 351 OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING (2 4 4)**

Introduction to object oriented programming (OOP) using the C++ language: C++ classes/objects, input/output streams, overloading, inheritance, templates and exception handling; Familiarity with the C programming language is a requirement.

**COE 381 MICROPROCESSORS (2 2 3)**

Microprocessor system: Basic concept and terminology, input, output, interface, memories. Architecture: ALU, registers, program counters etc. Hardware: System bus structure, data, address and control bus. Microprocessor interfacing. Types of microprocessors, 4 bit, 8 bit and 16 bit. Families (Intel, Motorola and Zilog). Assembler language programming; development aid, application development. Application of microprocessor in PLC.

**TE 361 INFORMATION THEORY (2 0 2)**

Information sources. A measure of information. Entropy. Channel capacity: Shannon’s theorem, Hartley – Shannon theorem, exchange of bandwidth & S/N ratio.

Average information. Communication rate: Effect of noise, binary channels.

Transmission codes. Error detection & correcting codes.

**EE 387 CLASSICAL CONTROL SYSTEMS (2 2 3)**

Laplace transforms, mathematical modeling of physical processes. Transfer functions, signal flow diagrams, block diagram manipulation. Step, impulse and frequency response of linear systems. Bode Plots, Nyquist Plots, Root locus, Nichol’s chart and application to design of compensators.

Feedback, feedforward and tacho feedback compensation. PID control, identification of linear systems, stability of linear systems.

**COE 389 INTERACTION OF RADIATION WITH MATTER (3 0 3)**

Ionizing and electronic excitation, origin and nature of ionizing radiation, interaction of ionizing radiation, range and shielding, interaction with human body, quantities and units.

**SECOND SEMESTER**

**COE 358 EMBEDDED SYSTEMS (3 2 3)**

*Overview of embedded systems*: Embedded C Programming; Interfacing C and Assembly; Loaders and object files; Profiling and code optimization.

*CPU Interfacing*: Use of the Edge-triggered D-type flip-flop and tri-state buffer for binary I/O –circuit design & timing diagrams; Design of buses (using registers and tri-state drivers) for connecting many binary sources to a single input port or for connecting many output ports to a single circuit design, handshaking, and timing diagram; Generalized handshaking protocol for binary input and output ; Standard buses: RS-232, RS-422, IEEE-488, PCI; Polling, Interrupts, buffering and DMA.

*Analog/Digital Interface*: D/A characteristics : transfer function, resolution, absolute error, linearity error, differential linearity error power supply sensitivity glitch area, settling time, slewing rate ; D/A designs:Resistive ladder and R-2R; Sample and hold (S/H) amplifier circuit and characteristic; A/D characteristics: transfer function, resolution, absolute error, linearity error, differential linearity error, power supply sensitivity; Comparator with hysteresis, output vs. input; A/D designs and comparison of properties: tracking, dual slope, successive approximation, flash, half-flash, sigma-delta; Analog data acquisition circuit –S/H, A/D, input port, handshaking, timing diagram; S/H aperture and A/D conversion time limitations on fmax; Analog data acquisition control-software vs. hardware trigger, status poll vs. interrupts vs. dedicated memory; Aliasing in the time domain-apparent frequency vs. true frequencyfor particular sampling rate.

*Embedded OS Design*

*Memory Management*: overlays and virtual memory.

*Concurrency management*

**COE 382 DIGITAL COMPUTER DESIGN (3 0 3)**

Review of standard combinational modules (e.g. decoders, encoders, multiplexers, de-multiplexers); standard arithmetic modules (e.g. adders, multipliers); standard sequential modules (e.g. registers, counters).

Levels of implementation of a digital system, hierarchical implementation; computer-aided design (CAD) tools; description of digital systems for design purposes; synthesis and optimization for verification.

Hardware description language (VHDL will be used); fundamentals of register transfer logic (RTL) system design; design of the digital computer as an RTL system (using VHDL).

**COE 354 OPERATING SYSTEMS (3 2 4)**

*Operating system components***;**

Real and virtual memory; paging and segmentation; fetch, placement and replacement algorithms; thrashing, Processor scheduling; disk space management and allocation; seek and rotational optimization; blocking and buffering. File systems’ directory structures’ access methods’ access control. Non-sequential files (e.g. hashed files, tree-structured files, B-trees multiple-key files)

*Process and concurrent programming* :

*Basic concepts*: states, transitions. Mutual exclusion, synchronization. Semaphores, monitors, Ada rendezvous. Deadlock and indefinite postponement; prevention , avoidance, detection , recovery.

*Security and Protection*:

Capabilities and access lists, privacy, covert channels, physical security, authentication mechanisms (password, challenges, key ), formalities. Library call, interface. Argument validation and transition

**COE 356 INTRODUCTION TO SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (3 2 3)**

*Accelerated Introduction to the Java Programming Environment*:

*Introduction to Software Engineering (SE):*Scope of SE, software life cycle

*Planning*: Cost of software development, constructive cost models, development time and cost models.

*Management*: Organization and management of programming teams ,democratic and hierarchical models, staffing , directing , and controlling software projects, program and project documentation , documentation of software products installation, user and maintenance manuals.

*Structural and Object Oriented Analysis and Design*: Requirement analysis and specification methods, data flow diagrams software design using CASE tools, case study of a CASE tool.

*Program development*: User Interface and problem solver structure, canonical forms of programs, program correctness, program development by stepwise refinement, recursive program analysis object oriented concepts object oriented program developments.

*Design of User Interfaces*: Concepts of robust input and output, design of menu/help systems, GUI libraries, Java and Visual C++.

*Software Metrics*: Program size metrics based on token count, coding effort and time, error and modularization metrics, logic and cognitive complexity metrics, cyclomatic complexity.

*Program Performance Measurements*: Compiler performance analysis, efficiency of processing arrays, language and compiler selection, program performance measurement and analysis.

*Software Testing, Verification and Evaluation*: Software quality assurance, program testing methods, white-box and black-box testing, program verification techniques

*Tools*: Programming environments, program complexity/quality analysis tools, tracing tools, profilers, debuggers.

*Legal and Economic Aspects of Software Production*: Intellectual property (copyright, patents, etc,), software contracts and negotiations.

**COE 368 DATABASE & INFORMATION RETRIEVAL (3 2 3)**

*Overview, Models, and Applications of Database Systems*: Introduction to the basic goals, functions, models, components, Applications, and social impact of database systems. History and motivation for database systems application programs, Users, administration; Functions supported by a typical database system; access methods, Security and concurrency, fourth generation environments; Recent developments and applications (e.g., Hypertext, Hypermedia, optical disks); Components of database systems; data, dictionary, database management system.

*Database Design*: Data models (E-R, relational, and object-oriented); the relational model. Relational algebra. SQL. Examples of existing relational management systems, Logic as a data model. Theory of normal forms and database design Physical organization (characteristics of disks and disk blocks. Storage of relations. Indexing: B-trees and hashing).

*Query Languages (relational algebra, relational calculus)*: Language paradigms and database languages: user interfaces and graphical query languages: query optimization: data dictionary.

*Implementation of a relational database kernel*:

*Concurrency, recovery and security*: Transaction processing; concurrency control; recovery from failure; security and integrity.

*Introduction to distributed database systems.*

*Case studies of commercial database languages and systems.*

*Lab work*: Computer programming using database management packages such as Informity, Sybase, Oracle, Fox Pro, and Encina on PCs. Gain experience with relational database kernel implementation using an imperative management system. Other similar labs can be designed to cover various other subtopics listed above,

**COE 392 COMPUTER ENG. LAB. II (0 5 1)**

Laboratory work related to the following:

Autotronic Labs. At least 3 assignments to be performed.

*FOURTH YEAR COURSES*

**SEMESTER ONE**

**COE 497 PROJECT I (0 6 3)**

Supervised research project by individual student in partial fulfillment of the requirement for graduation.

**COE 475 COMPUTER NETWORKING (3 2 4)**

General structure of data network architectures emergency theorem, Topological design, Protocols, Routing, congestions control; communication satelite, local area networks, random access techniques; error detection and correction codes.

**COE 485 COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE (3 0 3)**

Introduction; 5 components of a computer Description of MIPS ISA Performance review of Technology, Delay Modeling Cost and Design, Design Process, Multiply Divide, Floating Point Numbers, Designing a single cycle datapath, designing single cycle control, designing a multiple cycle controller and exceptions, Low power, pipelining, pipelining control and exceptions , introduction to memory system design, cache and virtual memory , I/O devices and systems.

**ELECTIVES(A student is to choose at least a course from the list below):**

**COE 451 COMPUTER GRAPHICS (3 2 3)**

Characteristics of display devices (e.g., raster, vector); Display devices, processors, software standards, introduction to GSK (Graphical Kernel System) PHIGS (Programmer’s Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System) and OpenGL; Representation of primitive objects (lines, curves, surface); Representation of composite objects; Two-and three-dimensional transformations (translation, rotation, scaling); Polygon mesh, spline surfaces, superquadratics, fractal geometry, octrees, visualization of three-dimensional data sets, geometric transformations; Parallel and perspective projections, three-dimensional view volumes, clipping; Depth-buffer, scan-line, depth sorting, area subdivision, octree, and ray-casting methods. Hidden lines and surfaces; Shading and coloring; interactive graphics and the user interface; Structure of graphics packages Two-dimensional viewing, structures/segments, hierarchical model, graphical user interfaces, interactive input methods; Animation techniques; Color models- basic concepts; RGB,CMY, HSV, HLS models.

**COE 453 DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING (3 2 3)**

Architectural support; Messages vs. remote procedure calls vs. shared memory models; Structural alternatives (e.g., master-slave, client-server, fully distributed, cooperating objects; Coupling (tight vs. loose); Naming and binding- distributed file systems, directory services; Verification, validation, and maintenance issues; Fault tolerance and reliability; Replication and aviodability; Security; Standards and protocols; Temporal concerns (persistence , serializability); Data coherence; Load balancing and scheduling; Scalability; Appropriate applications.

**COE 457 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (3 2 3)**

Introduction to LISP programming; Problems and state spaces, knowledge representation; State space/searching; basic control strategies; Dept-first and breadth-first Heuristic search; Generate and test, hill climbing; breadth-first analysis, graph search, minimax search forward and backward reasoning; Expert systems and system shells; Natural language processing; Learning and cognitive models; Vision.

**SECOND SEMESTER**

**ME 492 ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT (2 0 2)**

Entrepreneurship and free enterprise. Business planning. Product and service concepts for new ventures. Marketing and new venture development. Organising and financing new ventures. Current trend (Internet commerce, e-commerce). Business Law/Law of contract. Mini-project in business plan development for self employment.

**COE 498 PROJECT II (0 10 5)**

Supervised research project by individual student in partial fulfillment of the requirement for graduation

**ELECTIVES(A student is to choose three courses from the list below):**

**COE 486 INTRODUCTION TO VLSI (3 2 3**)

Technology of MOS integrated circuits. Layout and design rules for MOS circuits. Principles of VLSI design. Two phase clocking. Layout of random logic. Structured layout, PLA, computer aided design for VLSI, simulation, automatic layout. MOS memories, Technology of bipolar integrated circuit, A to D and D to A converters. Trends in VLSI engineering, custom VLSI, gate arrays.

**COE 452 COMPILER CONSTRUCTION (3 2 3)**

*Overview of compilation and translation*.

Lexical analysis: Regular expressions; NFAs and DFAs; Using lex.

*Syntactic analysis*: Context-free grammar; LL parsing; using yacc.

*Semantic analysis*; Symbol tables; symantic analysis; syntax directed translation; type checking.

*Code generation*: Intermediate Code generations; Allocation; final Code Generation instruction selection); Basic blocks/DAGs

*Optimization*: Flow graphs , dominators, control and data flow. Def-use . use-def . live variable analysis. Dead code . redundant computation elimination; Constant propagation. Strength reduction; Lop optimization; Register allocation; Other Optimizations.

**COE 454 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (3 2 3)**

*Role of System Analyst*: Requirements identification. Software requirements documentation. Requirements evolution.

*Requirements analysis*: Use of different viewpoints. Structured methods. SSADM.

*Process models*: System modeling notations and rules. Documentation guidelines.

*Data Flow Models*: Functional transformation of data. Data flow diagrams.

*Data dictionaries*: Role of data dictionary. Name management. Relational Data Model.

*Properties of various normal forms*: Transforming to Boyce-Codd Normal form.

*Describing Process Logic*: Mini-Specifications.

*Object-oriented analysis and design*: General description of O-O approach. Roles of inheritance and polymorphism. Class design. Introduction of UML.

*CASE tools*: Description of various types of CASE tools and programming workbenches. Using a particular CASE tool.

*Introduction to Project Management*: Project scope and boundaries, need for metrics, estimation, risk analyses, tracking, version control, managing resources.

Case Study: Case study involving use of the above techniques with appropriate CASE tools.

**COE 456 SECURE NETWORK SYSTEMS (3 2 3)**

*Security risks identification*: formal definitions of security, privacy, and integrity; risk assessment and management; Information theory; Information flow and covert channels; Malicious software (e.g. viruses, logic bombs)

*Protection of computer systems*: Coding and cryptography; authentication methods; capabilities, access lists, and protection domains; Standards; audit and control methods; legal factors, database and inference control; Security kernels. Verification

**COE 458 COMPUTER VISION & ROBOTICS (3 2 3)**

*Vision systems components*-cameras, illumination, optical systems, computer interface, frame stores, structured lighting, software support.

*Vision algorithm*: One and two dimensional images. Binary and gray-scale images. Thresholding. Image coding and storage. Run length coding. Edge detection. Blobs and features. Properties of objects in images –calculation of areas, moments, centroids and position. Templates and object identification. Image processing. Introduction to three dimensional algorithms. Colored images-their storage and processing.

*Robot Types, Components and Subsystems*: Stationary and mobile robots. Arm configurations. End effectors. Sensors. User interface. Manipulator geometry and work space.

*Robot position and motion*; Coordinates and transformations. Coordinate frames. Kinematics of position and inverse kinematics. Kinematics of motion. An introduction to robot ststics and dynamics. Mobile robots,. Task planning and programming. Accuracy and repeatability.

*Sensors and Actuators and Control*: Internal and external sensors. Computer interfaces. Actuators and drives. Vision systems in robotics. Robot control and programming. Computing.

*Robot applications*: Automated assembly. Robot Work cell design. Safety. Ccomputer based monitoring and protection of industrial and utility protection systems.

**COE 480 FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND FAILURE TOLERANCE (3 0 3) **

Fault tolerance systems, Voting circuits, self checking circuits, signature analyzers, Logic analyzers, designs for testability, practical methods for fault diagnosis.